The steps which can be identified in the process of negotiation from start to the completion of the process are as follows-
Preparing (Fact finding) –
• Each party gains knowledge about the other party and the subject matter.
• Each party identifies his own interests by like-intend-must analysis, as follows –
Ethics & Communication Notes of Most Important Questions for CA IPCC
Rs. 99 Only
1. Like –
• The interest that the negotiator would like to achieve.
• Achievement of these interests would be considered as happy situation.
2. Intend –
• The interests that the negotiator would sincerely try to achieve.
• Achievement of these interests would be considered as satisfactory situation.
3. Must –
• The interests that must be achieved.
• Achievement of these interests is considered critical.
• Non – Achievement of these results would be considered fruitless.
• At this stage, each party builds his case by explaining his position and his strengths.
• Generally, at this stage, the parties get into arguments and it results in a deadlock.
• Ideally, both the parties should listen to and understand each other’s position (i.e. his needs and preferences.)
• The deadlock is broken at this stage.
• One party gives some verbal or non-verbal clue to the other that he is willing to compromise.
• Understanding the clues, the other party proposes some modification.
• Parties leave aside the arguments, and discuss various propositions.
• Considering all the developments of the negotiation process, one party suggests an overall solution and carries out a fresh like-intend-must analysis.
• The other party reviews such solution and carries out a fresh like-intend-must analyze.
• At this stage, concessions are offered by some party subject to some conditions.
• If the other party agrees to such conditions, a proposal is presented.
• Even issues which were previously settled may be brought back into consideration.
• Both the parties are pushed by each other to take a decision to arrive at a mutually acceptable proposition.
• The mutually accepted proposition is given final shape of a written agreement listing all the details, and its implementation is ensured.
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