various steps which can be identified in the process of negotiation from start to the completion of the process.

The steps which can be identified in the process of negotiation from start to the completion of the process are as follows-
Preparing (Fact finding) –

• Each party gains knowledge about the other party and the subject matter.
• Each party identifies his own interests by like-intend-must analysis, as follows –

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1. Like –
• The interest that the negotiator would like to achieve.
• Achievement of these interests would be considered as happy situation.
2. Intend –
• The interests that the negotiator would sincerely try to achieve.
• Achievement of these interests would be considered as satisfactory situation.
3. Must –
• The interests that must be achieved.
• Achievement of these interests is considered critical.
• Non – Achievement of these results would be considered fruitless.
Arguing –
• At this stage, each party builds his case by explaining his position and his strengths.
• Generally, at this stage, the parties get into arguments and it results in a deadlock.
• Ideally, both the parties should listen to and understand each other’s position (i.e. his needs and preferences.)
Signaling –
• The deadlock is broken at this stage.
• One party gives some verbal or non-verbal clue to the other that he is willing to compromise.
Proposing –
• Understanding the clues, the other party proposes some modification.
• Parties leave aside the arguments, and discuss various propositions.
Packaging –
• Considering all the developments of the negotiation process, one party suggests an overall solution and carries out a fresh like-intend-must analysis.
• The other party reviews such solution and carries out a fresh like-intend-must analyze.
Bargaining –
• At this stage, concessions are offered by some party subject to some conditions.
• If the other party agrees to such conditions, a proposal is presented.
• Even issues which were previously settled may be brought back into consideration.
Closing –
• Both the parties are pushed by each other to take a decision to arrive at a mutually acceptable proposition.
• The mutually accepted proposition is given final shape of a written agreement listing all the details, and its implementation is ensured.
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